Desigualdades persistentes en América Latina: historia y cultura

Paul Gootenberg

Resumen


Este artículo reflexiona sobre la persistencia de enormes disparidades sociales y económicas en América Latina en distintas épocas, con diversos modelos de desarrollo y bajo diferentes regímenes políticos. Esto hace necesario el estudio de la desigualdad como una variable relevante y distintiva de la región. Destaca los planteamientos que se han hecho sobre la desigualdad latinoamericana desde diversas disciplinas y aboga por darle mayor relevancia a las interpretaciones que pueden darse desde el campo de las humanidades, en particular desde la historia, la antropología, la literatura y los estudios culturales, es decir, invita a ir más allá de las explicaciones económicas y sociológicas que durante mucho tiempo predominaron.

Palabras clave


historia económica; América Latina; desigualdad; estudios culturales

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ADELMAN, JEREMY, COMP. (1999), Colonial Legacies: The Problem of Persistence in Latin American History, Routledge, Nueva York.

ÁLVAREZ, SONIA Y ARTURO ESCOBAR, COMPS. (1992), Making of Social Movements in Latin America, Westview, Greenwood.

ANDERSON, BENEDICT (1983), Imagined Communities: Reflections on Origins and Spread of Nationalism, Verso, Londres.

APPADURAI, ARJUN 1996 Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, University of Minnesota Press,

Minneapolis.

APPELBAUM, NANCY 2003 Muddied Waters: Race, Region, and Local History in Colombia, 1846-1948, Duke University Press,

Durham.

AUYERO, JAVIER 2001 Poor Peoples Politics: Peronist Survival Networks and the Legacy of Evita, Duke University Press,

Durham.

BARTRA, ROGER 1987 La jaula de la melancolía: Identidad y metamorfosis del mexicano, Grijalbo, México.

BOURDIEU, PIERRE Y LOIC WACQUANT 1992 An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

BRUBAKER, ROGERS, Y FREDRICK COOPER2000 “Beyond Identity”, en Theory and Society, vol. 29, núm. 1.

BURNS, E. BRADFORD 1993 The Poverty of Progress: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century, University of California

Press, Berkeley.

CADENA, MARISOL DE LA 1999 Indigenous Mestizos: The Politics of Race and Culture in Peru, Duke University Press, Durham.

CASTAÑEDA, JORGE 1992 Utopia Unarmed: The Latin merican Left after the Cold War, A. Knopf, Nueva York.

CENTENO, MIGUEL, Y FERNANDO LÓPEZ-ALVES, EDS. 2001 The Other Mirror: Grand Theory through the Lens of Latin America, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

CHALMERS, DOUGLAS, ET AL. 1997 The New Politics of Inequality in Latin America: Rethinking Participation and Representation, Oxford University Press, Nueva York.

COLLIER, DAVID, ED. 1979 The New Authoritarianism in Latin America, Princeton.

DOUGLAS, MARY, Y S. NEY 1998 Missing Persons: A Critique of Personhood in the Social Sciences, University of California

Press/Russell Sage Foundation, Berkeley.

DRACLAS NEWS 2000/01 “Health in the Americas”; “Food in the Americas”, en DRACLAS NEWS, Harvard University, Cambridge [otoño].

DUNCAN, KENNETH, E IAN ROUTLEDGE, EDS. 1977 Land and Labour in Latin America, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

DUSSEL, ENRIQUE 1998 Ética de la liberación en la edad de globalización y la exclusión, Trotta, Madrid.

ECKSTEIN, SUSAN 1977 The Poverty of Revolution: The State and the Urban Poor in Mexico, Princeton University Press,

Princeton.

EDELMAN, MARC 1999 Peasants against Globalization: Rural Movements in Costa Rica, Stanford University Press,

Stanford.

ESCOBAR, ARTURO 1995 Encounter Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World, Princeton University

Press, Princeton.

FERRER, ADA 1999 Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation and Revolution, 1868-1898, University of North Carolina Press,

Chapel Hill.

FURTADO, CELSO 1970 Economic Development of Latin America: A Survey from Colonial Times to the Cuban Revolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

GARCÍA CANCLINI, NÉSTOR 1989 Culturas híbridas. Estrategias para entrar y salir de la modernidad, Grijalbo, México.

GIBSON, CHARLES 1964 The Aztecs under Spanish Rule, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

GLADE, WILLIAM 1969 The Latin American Economies: A Study of Their Institutional Evolution, Van Norstrand, Nueva

York.

GOOTENBERG, PAUL 2004 “Between a Rock and a Softer Place: Reflections on Some Recent Economic History of Latin

America”, en Latin American Research Review, vol. 39, núm. 2.

GRIFFIN, KEITH 1969 Underdevelopment in Spanish America, Allen y Unwin, Londres.

GUNDER FRANK, ANDRÉ 1967 Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America, Monthly Review Press, Nueva York.

HABER, STEPHEN 2003 “The New Institutional Economics and Latin American History”, introducción, en J. Bortz y S. Haber, The Mexican Economy, 1870-1930, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

HAGGARD, STEPHEN 1990 Pathways from the Periphery: The Politics of Growth in the Newly Industrializing Countries,

Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

HARVEY, DAVID 1989 The Condition of Postmodernity, B. Blackwell, Oxford.

HIRSCHMAN, ALBERTO O. 1972 “Problem-Solving and Policy-Making: A Latin American Style?”, en Journeys Towards

Progress, W.W. Norton, Nueva York.

HIRSCHMAN, ALBERTO O. 1973 “The changing tolerance for income inequality in the course of economic development”, en

Essay in Trespassing: Economic to Politics and Beyond, Cambridge University Press, Nueva York.

HIRSCHMAN, ALBERTO O. 1979 “The Turn to Authoritarianism in Latin America and the Search for its Economic Determinants”, en David Collier, comp. The New Authoritarianism in Latin America, Princeton University Press,

Princeton.

HIRSCHMAN, ALBERTO O. 1981 “The Tolerance for Inequality in the Course of Economic Growth”, en Essays in Trespassing,

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

IGLESIAS, ENRIQUE 1992 Reflections on Economic Development, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (IDB)

IGLESIAS, ENRIQUE 1999 Facing Up to Inequality in Latin America (1998- 99 Report), IDB, Washington D.C.

JACOBS, JANE 2000 The Nature of Economics, Modern Library, Nueva York.

JAMESON, FREDERIC 1991 Postmodernism or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Verso, Londres.

JOHNSON, JOHN J. 1958 Political Change in Latin America: Emergence of Middle Sectors, Stanford University Press,

Stanford.

JOSEPH, GIL, Y DANIEL NUGENT 1994 Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Mexico, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

KATZ, FRIEDRICH 1972 The Ancient American Empires, W.W. Norton, Nueva York.

KORZENIEWITZ, ROBERTO, Y WILLIAM SMITH 2000 “Poverty, Inequality and Growth in Latin America: Searching for the High Road to Globalization”, en Latin American Research Review, vol. 35, núm. 3.

LEWIS, OSCAR 1961 The Children of Sanchez, Vintage Books, Nueva York.

LOMNITZ, CLAUDIO 2001a “Nationalism as a Practical System”, Miguel Centeno y Fernando López-Alves, comps., The Other Mirror: Grand Theory through the Lens of

Latin America, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

LOMNITZ, CLAUDIO 2001b Deep Mexico, Silent Mexico: An Anthropology of Nationalism, University of Minnesota Press,

Minneapolis.

LOVE, JOSEPH 1996 Crafting the Third World: Theorizing Underdevelopment in Roumania and Brazil, Stanford

University Press, Stanford.

MALLON, FLORENCIA 1995 Peasant and Nation: Making of Postcolonial Mexico and Peru, University of California Press,

Berkeley.

MOREIRAS, ALBERTO 2001 The Exhaustion of Difference: The Politics of Latin American Cultural Studies, Duke University

Press, Durham.

MURPHY, A. Y A. STEPICK 1991 Social Inequality in Oaxaca: Resistance and Change, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

NEPANTLA: VIEWS FROM THE SOUTH 2000 Nepantla: Views from the South, vol. 1, núm. 1 [Duke University Press].

POOLE, DEBORAH 1997 Vision, Race and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andes, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

ROXBOROUGH, IAN 1992 “Neo-Liberalism: Limits and Alternatives”, en Third-World Quarterly.

RUBIN, JEFFREY 1997 De-Centering the Regime: Ethnicity, Radicalism and Democracy in Juchitán, Mexico, Duke

University Press, Durham.

SASSEN, SASKIA 1991 Global Cities: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

SEN, AMAYRTA 1999 Development and Freedom, A. Knopf, Nueva York.

SHUMWAY, NICHOLAS 1994 The Invention of Argentina, University of California Press, Berkeley.

SOMMER, DORIS 1991 Fictional Foundations: National Romances of Latin America, University of California Press,

Berkeley.

STEIN, STANLEY Y BARBARA STEIN 1970 The Colonial Heritage of Latin America, Oxford University Press, Nueva York.

STIGLITZ, JOSEPH E. 2002 Globalization and its Discontents, W.W. Norton, Nueva York.

STILLE, ALEXANDER 2001 “Grounded by an Income Gap”, en New York Times, 15 de diciembre, A-17.

THORP, ROSEMARY 1998 Progress, Poverty and Exclusion: An Economic History of Latin America, Inter -American Development Bank, Washington D.C.

THURNER, MARK 1997 From Two Republics to One Divided: Contradictions of Postcolonial State-making in Andean

Peru, Duke University Press, Durham.

TILLY, CHARLES 1998 Durable Inequalities, University of California Press, Berkeley.

TOKMAN, VÍCTOR, Y GUILLERMO O’DONNELL, COMPS.

Poverty and Inequality in Latin America: Issues and New Challenges, University of Notre Dame Press, South Bend.

TULCHIN, JOSEPH, COMP. 2001 Democratic Governance and Social Inequality in Latin America, Lynn Rienner, Boulder.

TUTINO, JOHN 1986 From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico, 1750- 1940, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

VAN DEN BERGHE, PIERRE, Y GEORGE PRIMOV 1977 Inequality in the Peruvian Andes: Class and Ethnicity in Cuzco, University of Missouri Press, Columbia.

WALLERSTEIN, IMMANUEL 1998 Utopistics: or Historical Choices for the Twenty- First Century, The New Press, Nueva York.

WOLF, ERIC R. 1999 Envisioning Power: Ideologies of Dominance and Crisis, University of California Press, Berkeley.

WOLFF, EDWIN N. 1995/2001 Top Heavy: A Study of Increasing Inequality of Wealth in America, Twentieth Century Fund, Nueva York.


Métricas de artículo

Cargando métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.